Amplification the process of indoor growth leading to an increased indoor microbial concentration compared to the immediate outdoor environment

Bacteria microorganisms with prokaryotic cell organization (lacking membranebounded nucleus and other specialized features); bacteria are also typically much smaller than fungi (molds)

Bioaerosol an airborne dispersion of particles containing whole or parts of biological entities, such as bacteria, viruses, dust mites, fungal hyphae, or fungal spores.

Colony a discrete growth usually discernable by the naked eye; this term is usually used in reference to growth originating from a single spore or cell

Fungus a kingdom of organisms (equal in rank to the Plant Kingdom or the Animal Kingdom) defined technically as a parasite or saprobeic, filamentous or singlecelled eukaryotic organism, devoid of chlorophyll and characterized by heterotrophic growth, and the production of extracellular enzymes. Fungi include yeasts, molds, mildews, and mushrooms.

Fungicide a chemical compound capable of inhibiting or destroying the growth of fungi

HEPA filter High Efficiency Particulate Air filters that have been tested to assure removal of 99.9% of particles 0.3 µm in size

Immunocompromised any condition in which the immune system functions in a abnormal or incomplete manner; such conditions are more frequent in the young, the elderly, and individuals undergoing extensive drug or radiation therapy

Microbe a general or nonspecific term for any microorganism such as bacteria, fungi (molds), algae, or protozoa.

Mildew a common name for mold or fungi; often used in reference to fungal growth on bathroom tiles and fixtures

Mold a common name for fungi that grow in a filamentous fashion and reproduce by means of spores; all molds are fungi, but not all fungi are considered ‘molds.

Spores reproductive units or specialized cells that provide the primary means for dispersal and survival; many fungal (mold) spores are capable of long term dormancy and are therefore referred to as resistant spores or resting spores

Substrate substance on or in which a microorganism is living

Toxigenic a substance or biological entity that has the property itself or can produce one or more compounds that have the property to harm humans or other animals.

Type I Hypersensitivity an immediate, usually localized response to allergens such as fungi, pollen, dust mites, or animal dander; examples of this type of disorder include insect stings, asthma, food allergies, drug reactions, and hives; type of antibodies involved.

Type II Hypersensitivity a delayed response (usually within hours or days) involving reactions against antigens located on target cells which are then destroyed; examples of this type of disorder include blood transfusions reactions and hemolytic disease of newborns (involving Rh factors); type of antibodies involved: IgG, IgM

Type III Hypersensitivity a delayed response (usually within hours or days) involving insoluble antigenantibody complexes which cause tissue necrosis (death) and acute inflammation; examples of this type of disorder include Farmer’s Lung (caused by fungi and other microorganisms), serum sickness, and malaria; type of antibodies involved IgG, IgM

Type IV Hypersensitivity a delayed response to microorganisms, tissue transplants, or chemicals that cause cellular inflammation; examples of this type of disorder include contact dermatitis, and Tuberculosis reactions (Mantoux test); type of antibodies involved: none

VOCs volatile organic compounds; some VOCs are of industrial origin whereas others are produced by microorganisms.